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Food production

Food processing is any method used to turn fresh foods into food products. It includes traditional approaches (heat treatment, fermentation, pickling, smoking, drying, curing) and modern methods (pasteurisation, ultra-heat treatment, high-pressure processing, or modified atmosphere packaging). It can also include the addition of ingredients to food, such as to extend shelf life. Food product development involves determining the physical, chemical,  microbiological, sensory and nutritional properties of food.

Understanding how food ingredients behave as a result of processing (for example, heating, extruding, shearing, etc) provides both knowledge and predictability. Whether it is the cooking of starch, the production of vegetarian meat products, the influence of moisture on the handling of ingredients, or how to enhance shelf life, food materials science can provide insight.

Publications - Food processing and product development

Neutron Scattering

“Food Structure Characterisation using Small-Angle Scattering Methods”, Elliot Gilbert, Marta Martinez-Sanz, and Amparo Lopez-Rubio in Handbook of Food Structure Development; Food Chemistry, Function and Analysis No. 18, Editors: Fotis Spyropoulos, Aris Lazidis & Ian T. Norton, The Royal Society of Chemistry (2020). ISBN 978-1-78801-216-4

“Small Angle Scattering (SAS) techniques for analysis of nanoencapsulated food ingredients”, Amparo Lopez-Rubio, Marta Martinez-Sanz and Elliot Paul Gilbert in “Nanoencapsulation in the Food Industry” in “Characterization of Nanoencapsulated Food Ingredients”, Volume 4 in the Nanoencapsulation in the Food Industry series, editor Seid Mahdi Jafari, Elsevier, 2020. ISBN 978-0-12-815667-4

“Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering in Food Colloids”, Elliot Paul Gilbert, Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 42 (2019) 55-72.

"NEUTRON SCATTERING: A NATURAL TOOL FOR FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH", Amparo Lopez-Rubio and Elliot Paul Gilbert, Trends in Food Science and Technology 20 (2009) 576-586.


“Relationship between structure and cyclodextrin formation during enzymatic treatment of starch from different botanical sources with CGTase”, Yaiza Benavent-Gil, Cristina M. Rosell and Elliot P. Gilbert* Food Hydrocolloids 112 (2021) 106316.

“A further study on supramolecular structure changes of waxy maize starch subjected to alkaline treatment by extended-q small-angle neutron scattering”, Binjia Zhang, Elliot P. Gilbert, Dongling Qiao, Fengwei Xie, David K. Wang, Siming Zhao, Fatang Jiang, Food Hydrocolloids 95 (2019) 133-142.

“Effect of amyloglucosidase hydrolysis on the multi-scale supramolecular structure of corn starch”, Zhi Yang, Xu Xu, Ravnit Singh, Liliana de Campo, Elliot P. Gilbert, Zhonghua Wu, Yacine Hemar, Carbohydrate Polymers, 212 (2019) 40-50.

“Structural changes from native waxy maize starch granules to cold water–soluble pyrodextrin during thermal decomposition”, Yanjie Bai, Liming Cai, James Doutch, Elliot P. Gilbert, and Yong-Cheng Shi*Journal Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014) 4186-4194.

“Optimisation of resistant starch II and III levels in durum wheat pasta to reduce in vitro digestibility while maintaining processing and sensory characteristics”, N. Aravind, M. Sissons, C. M. Fellows, J. Blazek, E. P. Gilbert, Food Chemistry 136 (2013) 1100-1109.

“Effect of β-Glucan Addition on Technological, Sensory and Structural Properties of Durum Wheat Spaghetti”, N. Aravind, M. Sissons, N. Egan, C. M. Fellows, J. Blazek, E. P. Gilbert, Cereal Chemistry 89 (2012) 84-93. 10.1094/CCHEM-08-11-0097.

Structural Changes during Starch Pasting using Simultaneous Rapid Visco Analysis and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering.”, James Doutch, Mark Bason, Ferdi Franceshcini, Kevin James, Douglas Clowes, Elliot P. Gilbert, Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 88, Issue 3, 15 April 2012,1061–1071.

“Effect of inulin soluble dietary fibre addition on technological, sensory, and structural properties of durum wheat spaghetti”, N. Aravind, M. Sissons, C. M. Fellows, J. Blazek and E.P. Gilbert, Food Chemistry 132 (2012) 993-1002.

“Effects of monoglycerides on pasting properties of wheat starch after repeated heating and cooling” Jaroslav Blazek, Elliot Paul Gilbert and Les Copeland, J. Cereal Sci. 54 (2011) 151-159.

"STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS OF GRANULAR STARCH UPON ACYLATION WITH SHORT-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS." Amparo López-Rubio, Julie M. Clarke, Ben Scherer, David Topping and Elliot P. Gilbert, Food Hydrocolloids23 (2009) 1940-1946.

"Effects of processing high amylose maize starches under controlled conditions on structural organization and amylase digestibility.", A. Htoon, A. K. Shrestha, B. M. Flanagan, A. Lopez-Rubio, A.R.Bird, E.P. Gilbert and M. J. Gidley,Carbohydrate Polymers 75 (2009) 236–245.

Animal proteins

“Nonlinear Behavior of Gelatin Networks Reveals a Hierarchical Structure”, Z. Yang*, Y. Hemar, L. Hilliou, E.P. Gilbert, D. McGillivray, M.A.K. Williams and S. Chaieb*, Biomacromolecules 17 (2016) 590-600.

Plant Proteins

“Effect of NaCl and CaCl2 concentration on the rheological and structural characteristics of thermally-induced quinoa protein gels”, Zhi Yang*, Liliana de Campo, Elliot Paul Gilbert, Robert Knott, Lirong Cheng, Ben Storer, Xiaoling Lin, Lan Luo, Shubham Patole and Yacine Hemar, Food Hydrocolloids 124 (2022) 107350.


Time-resolved quantitative phase analysis of complex fats during crystallization”, Naomi Arita-Merino, Hein van Valenberg, Elliot Gilbert and Elke Scholten, Crystal Growth & Design 20 (2020) 5193-5202.

Vegetarian meat

“Small angle neutron scattering quantifies the hierarchical fibrous structure in calcium caseinate”, Bei Tian, Zhaojun Wang, Liliana de Campo, Elliot P. Gilbert, Robert M. Dalgliesh, Evgenii Velichko, Atze Jan van der Goot and Wim G. Bouwman, Food Hydrocolloids 106 (2020) 105912.

Shelf life

“Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study on the structure of sodium caseinate in dispersions and at the oil-water interface: effect of calcium ions”, Lirong Cheng, Aiqian Ye*, Zhi Yang, Elliot Paul Gilbert, Robert Knott, Liliana de Campo, Ben Storer, Yacine Hemar, Harjinder Singh, Food Structure 32(2022) 100276.

“Interfacial structures of droplet-stabilized emulsions formed with whey protein microgel particles as revealed by small and ultra-small angle neutron scattering”, Lirong Cheng, Aiqian Ye*, Yacine Hemar, Elliot Paul Gilbert, Liliana De Campo, Andrew E. Whitten, Harjinder Singh, Langmuir 35 (2019) 12017-12027.


“Effect of ingestion temperature on the pepsin-induced coagulation and the in vitro gastric digestion behaviour of milk”, Mengxiao Yang, Aiqian Ye, Zhi Yang, David W. Everett, Elliot Paul Gilbert and Harjinder Singh acceptedFood Hydrocolloids 2 February 2023.

“Microstructural evolution during acid induced gelation of cow, goat, and sheep milk probed by time-resolved (ultra)-small angle neutron scattering”, Zhi Yang a*, Liliana de Campo b, Lirong Cheng c, Elliot Paul Gilbert b, e, Rainer Mittelbach b, Yacine Hemar d, Food Hydrocolloids 137 (2023) 108381.

“Pepsin-induced coagulation of casein micelles: Effect of whey proteins and heat treatment”, Mengxiao Yang,1 Aiqian Ye,1* Zhi Yang,2 David W. Everett,1,3 Elliot Paul Gilbert,4,5 and Harjinder Singh1, Food Chemistry 402 (2023) 134214.

“Kinetics of pepsin-induced hydrolysis and the coagulation of milk protein”, Mengxiao Yang, Aiqian Ye,* Zhi Yang, David W. Everett, Elliot Paul Gilbert, and Harjinder Singh, J. Dairy Science 105 (2022) 990–1003.

“Reconstitution Properties of Micellar Casein Powder: Effects of Composition and Storage”, Erix P. Schokker, Jeffrey S. Church, Jitendra P. Mata, Elliot P. Gilbert, Amirtha Puvanenthiran & Punsandani Udabage, International Dairy Journal21 (2011) 877-886.

“Structure of Casein Micelles in Milk Protein Concentrate Powders via Small Angle X-ray Scattering”, Jitendra P. Mata, Punsandani Udabage and Elliot P. Gilbert*, Soft Matter7 (2011) 3837-3843 - DOI: 10.1039/C0SM01010C

Dairy Gels

“Effect of genipin cross-linking on the structural features of skim milk in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)”, Ravnit Singh, Yacine Hemar, Elliot P. Gilbert, Zhonghua Wu, Zhi Yang Colloid and Surfaces A 603 (2020) 125174.

Effect of porous waxy rice starch addition on acid milk gels: structural and physicochemical functionality”, Zhi Yang, Xu Xu, Yacine Hemar, Guang Mo, Liliana de Campo, Elliot P. Gilbert, Food Hydrocolloids 109 (2020) 106092.


"Effects of Thermal Denaturation on the Solid-State Structure and Molecular Mobility of Glycinin" Mickey Huson, Ekaterina Strounina, Catherine S. Kealley, Manoj K. Rout, Jeff Church, Ingrid A. M. Appelqvist, Peter J. Lillford, Michael J. Gidley and Elliot Paul Gilbert, Biomacromolecules12 (2011) 2092-2102.

"Dynamical transition in a large globular protein: macroscopic properties and glass transition", C.S. Kealley, A.V. Sokolova, G.J. Kearley, E. Kemner, M. Russina, A. Faraone, W.A. Hamilton, E.P. Gilbert, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics 1804 (2010) 34–40.

“Small angle X-ray scattering study of the effect of pH and salt on 11S soy glycinin in the powder and solution statesAnna Sokolova*, Catherine S. Kealley, Tracey Hanley, Agata Rekas, Elliot P. Gilbert*, J. Agriculture Food Chem.58 (2010) 967-974.

"Solid-State Structure and Molecular Mobility of Native 11S Soy Glycinin as a Function of Moisture Content", Catherine S. Kealley, Manoj K. Rout, Mahshid Roohani Dezfouli, Ekaterina Strounina, Andrew K. Whittaker, Ingrid A.M. Appelqvist, Peter J. Lillford, Elliot P. Gilbert and Michael J. Gidley,Biomacromolecules 9 (2008) 2937-2946.

"Application of Small Angle Scattering to Study the Effects of Moisture Content on a Native Soy Protein", Catherine S. Kealley, Margaret M. Elcombe, Richard Wuhrer and Elliot P. Gilbert, J. Appl. Cryst. 41 (2008) 628-633.


“Hemicellulose-cellulose interactions affect the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of bacterial cellulose hydrogels”, Si-Qian Chena,b, Patricia Lopez-Sanchezb#, Deirdre Mikkelsenb, Marta Martinez-Sanzb&, Zhaofeng Lia, Qiudong Liaoa,c, Elliot P Gilbertd, Lin Lia and Michael J Gidleyb* Food Hydrocolloids136 (2023) 108283.

“Advanced structural characterization of agar-based hydrogels: Rheological and small-angle scattering studies”, Marta Martínez-Sanz*, Anna Ström, Patricia Lopez-Sanchez, Svein H Knutsen, Simon Balance, Hanne K Zobel, Anna Sokolova, Elliot P Gilbert and Amparo López-Rubio, Carbohydrate Polymers 236 (2020) 115655.

“Nanostructure and poroviscoelasticity in cell wall materials from onion, carrot and apple: roles of pectin”, P. Lopez-Sanchez, M. Martinez-Sanz, M. R. Bonilla, F. Sonni, E.P. Gilbert and M. J. Gidley, Food Hydrocolloids 98 (2020) 105253.

“Foreword to the Special Issue of Food Structure from the Fifth International Neutrons and Food Conference”, Elliot Paul Gilbert, Food Structure 22 (2019) 100126.

“Adsorption isotherm studies on the interaction between polyphenols and apple cell walls: effects of variety, heating and drying”, Dongjie Liu, Patricia Lopez-Sanchez, Marta Martinez-Sanz, Elliot P. Gilbert, Michael J. Gidley Food Chemistry 282 (2019) 58-66.

“STRUCTURE OF CELLULOSE MICROFIBRILS IN MATURE COTTON FIBRES”, Marta Martínez-Sanz a,b, Filomena Pettolino c, Bernadine Flanagan b, Michael J. Gidley b and Elliot P. Gilbert a* Carbohydrate Polymers 175 (2017) 450-463.


“Characterisation of Bacterial Cellulose from Diverse Komagataeibacter Strains and their Application to Construct Plant Cell Wall Analogues”, Si-Qian Chen1, Deirdre Mikkelsen1, Patricia Lopez-Sanchez1, Dongjie Wang1, Marta Martinez-Sanz1, 2, Elliot P Gilbert2, Bernadine M Flanagan1 and Michael J Gidley1* Cellulose 24 (2017) 1211-1226.

“Cellulose-pectin composite hydrogels: intermolecular interactions and material properties depend on order of assembly”, P. Lopez-Sanchez1*, M. Martinez-Sanz1,2, M.R. Bonilla3, D. Wang1, E. P. Gilbert2, J. Stokes2, M.J. Gidley1, Carbohydrate Polymers,162 (2017) 71-81.

“Adsorption behaviour of polyphenols on cellulose is affected by processing history”, Dongjie Liu, Marta Martinez-Sanz, Patricia Lopez-Sanchez, Elliot P Gilbert and Michael J Gidley* Food Hydrocolloids, 63 (2017) 496-507.

“INVESTIGATION OF THE MICRO- AND NANO-SCALE STRUCTURE OF CELLULOSE HYDROGELS WITH PLANT CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDES: A COMBINED USANS/SANS STUDY”, Marta Martínez-Sanz, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Bernadine Flanagan, Christine Rehm, Liliana de Campo, Michael J. Gidley and Elliot P. Gilbert*Polymer, 105 (2016) 449-460.

“MULTI-SCALE MODEL FOR THE HIERARCHICAL ARCHITECTURE OF NATIVE CELLULOSE HYDROGELS”, Marta Martínez-Sanz, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Bernadine Flanagan, Michael J. Gidley and Elliot P. Gilbert*, Carbohydrate Polymers, 147 (2016) 542-555.


“Evidence for differential interaction mechanism of plant cell wall matrix polysaccharides in hierarchically-structured bacterial cellulose”, Marta Martínez-Sanz, Patricia Lopez-Sanchez, Mike J. Gidley and Elliot P. Gilbert*, Cellulose 22 (2015) 1541-1563.

“Application of X-ray and neutron small angle scattering techniques to study the hierarchical structure of plant cell walls: A review”, Marta Martínez-Sanz, Michael J. Gidley and Elliot P. Gilbert*, Carbohydrate Polymers, 125 (2015) 120-134.